HISTORY OF BALI

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Bali with all its unique customs and the hospitality of its inhabitants became one of the main attraction for tourists to visit and can directly see and enjoy the uniqueness of its culture.

In addition to being a favorite place of tourist destination, both domestic and foreign tourists, Bali which is also known as the island of thousand temples, has a place which offers a beautiful panorama and also a place that has good prospects for developing the business world in the field of tourism.

Bali province with an area of 5,632.86 km2, which consists of 6 islands, namely; Bali, Menjangan, Nusa Penida, Nusa Ceningan, Nusa Lembongan and Serangan Island. While the total population is about 4,104,900 inhabitants with a population growth of 2% per year. Where tourism sector dominates the economy in Bali or island and the rest depends on the agricultural sector.

Bali consists of 9 regencies/municipalities, namely: Denpasar, Badung, Gianyar, Tabanan, Jembrana, Buleleng, Karangasem, Klungkung and Bangli. Almost all regencies and city have sea area. Unless Bangli which does not have sea borders, but in this regency, there is a lake called Lake Batur in Kintamani area with a panoramic view of Mount Batur and the uniqueness of Trunyan population.

As a barometer, safety and comfort for tourists as well as residents of Bali is a top priority. The Regional Police of Bali, Army, Level I and II Local Government as well as the community, hand in hand and work together to realize the security and public order. Police with its Community Guidance, National Arm Force with its Community Security and Order (Kamtibmas Bhabin), directly involved in the community and working with the village head, in order to prevent or take preventive measures and early detection of disturbances in each area of Bali.

The first inhabitants of the island of Bali were predicted to come in 3000-2500 BCE who migrated from Asia. Where relics of the stone tools were found in the village Cekik located in the western part of the island. Prehistoric times and then ended with the arrival of Hinduism and Sanskrit writings of India in 100 BC.

Balinese Culture was then affected by a strong influence of Chinese and Indian culture of which process was faster after the 1st century AD. The name of Balidwipa (Bali Island) began to be found in various inscriptions, including Belanjong Inscription issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 913 AD and mentioning the word of Walidwipa. It was estimated that around this time Subak irrigation system for rice cultivation was developed. Some religious and cultural traditions also began to develop at that time. Majapahit Empire (1293-1500 AD) adhered Hindu and centered in the island of Java, had founded the subordinate kingdom in Bali around the year 1343 AD. It was almost the entire archipelago were Hindus at that time, but with the coming of Islam, Islamic kingdoms were established in the archipelago causing the collapse of Majapahit. Many nobles, clergymen, artists and other Hindu community withdrew from Java to Bali at that time.

The Europeans who first discovered Bali was Cornelis de Houtman from the Netherlands in 1597, though a Portuguese ship had previously been stranded near Tanjung Bukit, Jimbaran, in 1585. Dutch through VOC began to execute their colonial in the land of Bali, but they continued to get opposition, so until the end of the occupation, their position in Bali was not as strong as their position in Java or Maluku. Starting from the northern region of Bali, since the 1840s the Netherlands had become a permanent presence that was originally done by conflicting various Balinese rulers who were not mutually trust each other.

Dutch conducted big attack by sea and land against Sanur area and was followed by the Denpasar area. Bali which lost in term of numbers and weaponry did not want to experience shame for surrender, therefore war to the death or puputan war occurred involving all people both men and women, including the king. It was estimated about 4,000 people were killed in the incident, although the Netherlands had ordered them to surrender. Furthermore, the Dutch governors who ruled only provide a few influences on the island, so that local control of religion and culture were generally unchanged.

Japan occupied Bali during World War II and then a military officer named I Gusti Ngurah Rai formed Bali forces ‘freedom fighters’. Following the defeat of Japan in the Pacific in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia (including Bali) to re-establish its colonial rule as a state before the war. This was opposed by Bali forces who was using Japanese weapons.

On November 20, 1945, Puputan Margarana battle broke out occurred in the village of Marga, Tabanan, Central Bali. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai who was 29 years, led his army from east of Bali to carry out attacks to death to Dutch troops were completely armed. All members of the Balinese battalion were killed and made it as the last Balinese military opposition.

In 1946 Dutch made Bali as one of the 13 regional parts of East Indonesian State proclaimed, namely, as one of the rival state to the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali wasthen also included into the United Indonesia Republic when the Dutch recognized Indonesian independence on 29th of December 1949. In 1950, Bali officially left the United with the Dutch and legally became a province of the Republic of Indonesia.
Mount Agung eruption occurred in 1963 had shaken the people’s economy and led to many people in Bali transmigrated to other areas in Indonesia.

In 1965, along with the failure of Coup d’état by G30S against the national government in Jakarta, subjugation against members and sympathizers of Communist Party of Indonesia occurred in Bali and many other areas. In Bali, it was estimated that more than 100,000 people were killed or disappeared. Nevertheless, the events of the early days of the New Order is up to now has not succeeded to be disclosed by law.[6]

Terrorist attacks had occurred on October 12, 2002, in the form of Bali Bombing attack 2002 in Kuta Beach tourist area, which led to as many as 202 people were killed and other 209 were injured. Bali bombing attack 2005 also occurred three years later in Kuta and Jimbaran beach. These incidents got extensive international coverage because most of the victims were foreign tourists and causing Bali’s tourism industry faced severe challenges in several recent years. (Altinet)

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